P.R.E. ~ Pura Raza Española ~ Pure Spanish Horse ~ Andalusian
If you ONLY buy ONE Book on the Breed.... this is the ONE!
Juan Llamas "This is the Spanish Horse"
Only 1000 copies were printed in english and brought to the USA, so you will have to search for it. Try your luck on EBay.
The books listed (in print) are available from Equibooks
and Xenophon Press
Many are out of print but available if you are
RECOMMENDED BREED RELATED & TRAINING BOOKS
"This Is The Spanish Horse"
A comprehensive guide to conformation, history, etc. Excellent illustrations contrasting and comparing the breed traits. An absolute must for the student of the Pure Spanish Horse.
"El Caballo Espanol, The Spanish Horse in Drawings" byJuan Llamas
This book is written in Spanish and English with excellent Drawings, and explains the Standards of the P.R.E. Breed. There are 231 pages with beautiful pictures of The Spanish Horse with descriptions for each one. Chapters include: The Head, The Neck, Withers, Shoulder and Arm, Chest, Thorax, and Abdomen, Back and Loin, Croup and Tai, The Front Legs, The Rear Legs, Skin and Hair, and Movements.
CONQUERORS - The Roots Of New World Horsemanship by Dr. Deb Bennett, Ph.D.
In a single 432 page volume, author Bennett has tackled one of the grandest stories in the history of the world. Conquerors tells the story of mounted horsemanship, a story not just of cowboys, but of native peoples; Mongolian Huns, Berber warriors, Spanish conquistadors, Caribbean pirates and American patriots. All of these contribute to the birth of the unique and varied horse cultures of the New World: Argentinean gauchos, Chilean huasos, Peruvian chalans, Mexican charros, California vaqueros, Montana buckaroos and Texas Cowboys. Conquerors is provocative, fascinating, easy reading - A jewel among horse books.
"The Royal Horse of Europe" by Lady Sylvia Loch
A well researched work on breed history of the Horse of Kings. This extraordinary book tells the story of the great war-horse of Spain and Portugal, the Andalusian and the Lusitano. The author's original research covers the development of horse and horsemanship in Iberia from pre-Roman times to the present day. Sylvia Loch also highlights the contribution which these noble stallions can make to the promotion of dressage. In the teaching of classical equitation these horses, with their magnanimous temperament, strength and extravagant action, are Nature's schoolmasters and now occupy a prominent place in the equestrian scheme of many countries, especially Germany, France, Austria and Australia, as well as Spain and Portugal.
The Spanish Horse: The Evolution of His Conformation
by Juan Carlos Altamirano
The process of creation of the morphology of the Spanish purebred; documentary evidence indicates that the Spanish horse is the product of a genetic project undertaken in 1567 by King Philip II in Cordoba. This book analyzes the reasons for which the characters that distinguish the Spanish purebred were chosen. He also explains the morphological changes of the breed since its creation & the causes of this evolution.
“History & Origin of the Spanish Horse” by Juan Carlos Altamirano
A thoroughly documented work with extraordinarily beautiful photographs, challenges the long accepted legends and myths
surrounding the origins of the breed. Even though the Spanish horse created in Andalusia is famous all over the world, historical studies regarding it's origins & development are scarce & existing ones generally lack necessary scientific rigor. The significance of the research of Juan Carlos Altamirano stems from the fact that for the first time ever it reveals the exact process of selection carried out to create the Spanish horse. This book, asserts that the Spanish that the Spanish breed of horses is not the result of a discovery, but rather the product of a patient & painstaking process of selection carried out in Cordoba in the 16th century at orders of the king Philip II.
“The Story of the Carthusian Horses”
By Juan Carlos Altamirano
Research based on documents from the public administration & Carthusian Monks of Jerez de la Frontera from the time they began to breed horses until the disappearance of their order in the 19th century. Extensive & painstaking study of documents which were thought to have disappeared at the time of the French revolution.
The Bocado Stud Farm by Juan Carlos Altamirano
In this research work on the Spanish horse, which was a must after the publication of the History of the Carthusian Horse, the author shows us in a well documented form the origins & history of horses of this stud farm, namely the specimens obtained, selected & improved in the area around the city of Arcos de la Frontera & of San José del Valle (Cadiz), the area where the Purebred Spanish horses arrived in the hands of the duke of Arcos & of the order of the Jesuits. The book takes us back to the beginning of the 18th century to show us, in a detailed yet easy to understand form, the vicissitudes of these horses & of the different owners of this stud farm-the once Terry Stud Farm-considered to be one of the most important in history.
The Purebred Spanish Horse: the Living Legend
By Juan Carlos Altamirano
In this fully documented and beautifully illustrated book, the foreword to which was written by Vicente Soriano García, the author presents the history and vicissitudes of Spanish horses in the 20th century. This book is the third part of ” History and Origin of the Spanish Horse (1998). (The second: The Spanish Horse Under The Bourbon Kings (2004)..
“The Spanish Horse Under the Bourbon Kings”
by Juan Carlos Altamirano
(Bilingual) The history of the PRE from 1800 forward. This documented work shows the vicissitudes that the Spanish horse had to live through during one of the most unsettled political & social periods in the Spanish history. It covers the years from 1700, the year that coincides with the arrival in Spain of the Bourbon kings, until the beginning of the 20th century. It explains the historical development of this breed of horses which, ever since its creation in the second half of the 16th century, kept expanding through continuous crosses carried out mainly by the Andalusian breeders, The aim was to try to uniform the rest of the equine population, based on the morphological & psychological characteristics for which the Spanish horse had gained its status of being perfect.
Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art
by JC Altamirano
Author presents the history of the Royal School, founded in May 1973, the first performance of the spectacle in the González Hontoria Park of Jerez de la Frontera to present day. He describes the circumstances that had led to the birth of "doma vaquera" and the Spanish Riding School, highlighting the importance of the creation of the Spanish horse for academic equitation. This work reveals the reasons for which the Royal School has become of the most important equestrian centres in the world.
Royal Stable of Cordoba
by Juan Carlos Altamirano
This book shows step by step & with great detail how the royal stables of Cordoba were built & the vicissitudes surrounding the building from the moment of the purchase of the plot on which it was constructed up to the present. This books shows that the Spanish horse is not the result of natural evolution but of the biggest genetic project in history, geared to obtaining a breed of horses with predetermined characteristics, undertaken at the orders of the King Philip II starting in 1567, in the city of Cordoba. (Written in Spanish, English, French, & German).
Cárdenas: Horses & Home
by Robert Vavra
A showcase of the incredible stallions and mares of Miguel Angel Cárdenas of Ecija, Spain, one of the most revered breeders of the Spanish horse in all the world. The Cárdenas stud has been honored with the most National Championships & Best Breeder awards in Spain.
Mi Vereda a Galope
by Alvaro Domecq y Diez
Memories - the autobiography of Alvaro Domecq. This book describes with authority what was learned in 80 years of working with Andalusian horses: the horse, its training, the equestrian art, bullfighting and its great personages; the rejoneo, the field and the life. Text is in Spanish.
Living and Working with THE HORSE OF SPAIN
by Peter Maddison & Linda Lake
The authors look at the history of the Spanish horse, his breeding, conformation, temperament and his traditional training for "la doma vaquera, la garrocha and the rejoneo", and also the true art of classical dressage, "la doma clasica". The book covers training under saddle as well as in-hand work, looks at the show ring, at correct saddlery and costume, and instructs the reader in the art of trimming, mane plaiting and tail dressing in the traditional Spanish manner. This book is a celebration of the Spanish Horse, further distinguished by a stunning selection of photographs.
REFLECTIONS ON EQUESTRIAN ART
by Nuno Oliveira
Nuno Oliveira has been described as one of the last of the great international riding masters and this important book affords an opportunity to study a master at work. The author, who reveals much of his own personality and philosophy in his writing, examines and explains classical techniques with clarity and brilliance. Throughout the book the emphasis is on lightness and harmony, the whole reflecting a deep love and respect for the horse.
Henriquet on Dressage by Michel Henriquet with Catherine Durand
This lovely book follows the training of three young horses, from their first schooling experiences to the execution of classical airs at the age of nine. Each of the three horses in this book have different personalities and capabilities, which prompt the author to draw upon his vast equestrian experience and highlight particular aspects of communication and technique throughout. A long-time friend and disciple of the late Nuno Oliveira, Henriquet explains and applies his most useful teachings, as well as those of La Gueriniere, Steinbrecht, Baucher, and de Kerbrech, making this book one that will satisfy and inform anyone
working in the true classical tradition.
DRESSAGE - The Art of Classical Riding by Sylvia Loch
In this major work, Sylvia Loch traces the colorful and superbly elegant tradition of classical riding from it's early beginnings in the time of Xenophon, through the Baroque splendor of equitation in seventeenth century Germany and Austro-Hungary, to its later flowering in France, Spain, Portugal and England. Alois Podhajsky and Nuno Oliveira and other great masters continued to practice and teach at the pinnacle of the art. Sylvia's book is a passionate plea for the classical traditions of the to masters to continue. A "must-read" for every serious aficionado of modern competitive dressage and fine riding.
DRESSAGE IN LIGHTNESS
by Sylvia Loch.
This book is a must for those who want to know exactly what their horse is thinking when they are in the saddle. Many riders know the traditional aids, but remain unaware of the bio-mechanical reason for doing things a certain way for the horses sake. By underlining the forces that influence the horse as he moves, the author demystifies concepts such as outline, engagement, & the weight aids.
Twisted Truths of Modern Dressage by Philippe Karl
In this book, Philippe Karl, one of the most outspoken critics of the modern dressage world, reveals some disturbing facts about the physical, anatomical and mental effects through official dressage guidelines as issued by the German Horse Society on horses. By comparing these with philosophies of masters of classical riding such as La Gueriniere and Baucher, he shows possible solutions to the challenging situation of modern competitive dressage. This book explores key problems of modern dressage: physical aspects, straightness, balance, exercises. It describes the effects of modern dressage, breeding and business. It suggests a classical alternative: the philosophy of 'legerity'.
The Portuguese School of Equestrian Art Escola Portuguesa de Arte Equestre
Excellent presentation with expert contributions on the history and importance of the school and it’s riders. Also a study of the Alter Real breeding farm and program. Beautiful contemporary photography of horses, facilities and riders present a classical image of this important equestrian institution. With English and Spanish text.
LUSITANO HORSE - Son of the Wind by Arsénio Raposo Cordeiro
This book is an expertly translated edition of "Cavalo Lusitano - Filho do Vento". This elegant table top hardcover book boasts the most outstanding pictorial representation of Iberian horses, specially the Lusitano horse. The history and tradition of the Lusitano horse is told in over 200 incredible photos and prints in color. Illustrated with many rare photos from both breeding farms and the natural habitat of the lowlands of the Guadalquivir valley. The photo collection also shows the incredible versatility of the Lusitano horse, in driving, jumping, dressage, reining (doma vaquera) and naturally as a rejoneador's horse in the bullfight from horseback.
A HISTORY OF THE HORSE - The Iberian Horse from Ice Age to Antiquity
by Paulo Gaviao Gonzaga. This book traces the origin of the horse in Europe, Asia and North Africa, and in particular on the Iberian peninsula. The author deals with the confusion about types and breeds of horse. He presents archeological evidence and draws on a number of theories about the ancestral types which formed the basis for modern breeds. The influence of the Iberian horse in Africa and its relationship with Barb and Arab horses is discussed. The book ends with an overview of the circulation of horses on the Iberian peninsula, during the early historic period.
EL CABALLO AZTECA The Azteca Horse
by Octavio Colmenares Vargas
25 years after the inauguration of the Azteca Horse, El Caballo de Raza Azteca, this marvelous breed of horses finally has it's definitive book in English and Spanish language. In collaboration with the Azteca breed's founders, breeders, veterinarians, historians, artists and the Mexican Azteca Breeders Association, Octavio Colmenares Vargas has produced this uniquely artistic and informative book. History, breed standards, selection criteria, temperament, training, performance and art of the Azteca Horse. The book presents the Azteca Horse as the culmination of Mexican history, culture and traditions.
DANCING WITH HORSES
by Klaus Ferdinand Hempfling
A groundbreaking horse book and video on how to develop trust and harmony between horses and humans using an innovative visual language. Dominance without punishment, collection withour rein pressure - these apparent
contradictions are explained as master horseman Klaus Ferdinand Hempfling teaches his fascinating method of training horses. He compares his work with horses to dancing, where two beings read one another’s body language to move
together in harmony. He asserts that if effective communication is established, a horse will retain all of its natural grace and elegance when ridden.
THE REVOLUTION IN HORSEMANSHIP
by Robert Miller DVM & Rick Lamb
There has been a change in how we treat our horses: We no longer "break" them to harness or saddle; we "gentle" them, so they become our partners, their natural grace and athleticism restored and enhanced through humane and thoughtful methods. The authors describe how the horse's mind works, how horses learn and how the psychological training methods of great horsemen past and present allow the rest of us to achieve extraordinary results with not only our horses but with ourselves.
Robert Vavra's Classic Book of Horses
This book is a celebration of Vavra's finest photographs followed by the stories of fascinating horses and the men, women, and children who love them. Introduction by James A. Michener.
Art of the Lusitano by Pedro Yglésias de Oliveira
This book combines 18th century illustrations and contemporary art to portray the journey of this great breed through history. The original illustrations from Manoel Carlos de Andrade’s 18th century monumental text, Luz da Liberal, e Nobre Arte da Cavallaria, act as backdrops for the stars of today’s Portuguese School of Equestrian Art. Today's living equestrian art juxtapose with the engraving art of the18th century show amazing likenesses. The Portuguese School of Equestrian Art does a fantastic job of keeping traditional Portuguese equitation alive and thriving. The second part of the book features today's competitive Lusitano stallions and their accomplished riders set in front of gorgeous colorful contemporary paintings. Pedro Yglésias de Oliveira is the official photographer of the Portuguese School of Equestrian Art. An art book, a breed book, an inspiration!
The Lusitano Horse by Juan Carlos Altamirano
In this documented & illustrated book, the author presents the history of the Lusitano Horses since their origin until our times, history that varies substantially from the theories supported until today. The book widely develops the theory of the "Iberian horse" making us realize that such a horse never existed & that the Purebred Lusitano Horse does not descend from it. It also shows that the process of formation of this breed was not initiated thousands of years ago, as many authors have claimed, but in 1640, with a group of horses of French origin purchased in Poitiers & La Rochelle, by order of king Juan IV, & was later forged by means of crossbreeding carried out with specimens belonging to breeds such as the Purebred Spanish Horse, the Arab, & the English Thoroughbred, amongst others.
'To Amaze the People with Pleasure and Delight' by Elaine Walker
NOW IN PRINT: William Cavendish, first Duke of Newcastle’s passions included women, music, writing, theatre and, perhaps above all, the finest horses. He was a widely acknowledged expert in the art of the riding horse, and his works laid the foundation for classical dressage. Mastery in horsemanship was the mark of a graceful and accomplished gentleman in the European nobility of the seventeenth century.In the first comprehensive study of Newcastle’s two horsemanship manuals dating from 1658 and 1667, Dr. Elaine Walker explores the insights they offer into riding practice, personal philosophy and motivation. Newcastle’s writing has surprising relevance to the modern rider or any reader interested in the long history of the coevolution of man and horse together.
The Art of Riding a Horse or Description of Modern Manege in all Its Perfection 1727.
This book is likely to create a small revolution in the way we ride and train horse for supple collection. Each exercise is described succinctly with an accompanying diagram beautifully engraved. A contemporary of de la Gueriniere, Eisenberg was trained in the European Royal riding academies including the Viennese Spanish Riding school under Regenthal. Eisenberg is prominently featured in Koert van der Horst's Great Books on Horsemanship with over 8 pages of coverage. Never before has this material been available in English.
From the Real Picaria of the 18th century to the Portuguese School of Equestrian Art
by Pedro Yglesias de Oliveira and Emilia Celestino da Costa
In recreating the prestigious Real Picaria, the 18th century Equestrian Academy of the Portuguese Royal Court, the Portuguese School of Equestrian Art continues one of the oldest and most brilliant Portuguese traditions. Since ancient times, Portugal has cultured a fondness for horses and their uses. In the 15th century, Dom Duarte, King of Portugal published the first treatise on riding. It was from the Iberian Peninsula that the principles of Equestrian Art reached Renaissance Italy, and later spread to the rest of the civilized world. This book is a tribute to the beautiful Lusitano horse, and to all equestrians who, over the centuries, and in spite of variable circumstances, have protected and disseminated the Portuguese equestrian traditions, especially those now practiced at the Portuguese School of Equestrian Art. (Portuguese/English).
École de Cavalerie by La Guérinière
First published in 1731 and again under different titles between 1733 and 1802. This expanded edition contains all Chapters I - XXII of Part II of École de Cavalerie : The Method of Training Horses According to the Different Ways in Which They Will Be Used. Chapters XIX through XXII are new to this edition and contain valuable subjects: the war horse, the hunt horse, the coach horse and other matters such as tournaments, jousting, and carousels. The author reveals important training advice that will be invaluable to riders of many disciplines. The illustrations used are reproduced from the 1733 edition. Further expanding this edition is an Appendix including a new translation of Chapter VI from Part I: On the bridle. École de Cavalerie is one of the best works on equitation ever to appear in France.
Ecole de Cavalerie by Francois Robichon de la Gueriniere
One of the bibles of classical dressage, most famous for its introduction of the shoulder-in. According to Col. Alois Podhajsky, former director of the Spanish Riding School for 26 years, this is "the most revolutionary book on riding of all times. Its principles are still applied unaltered at the Spanish Court Riding School and may be seen there in daily use." La Gueriniere's work is still considered the equestrian 'Bible' of the Spanish Riding School of Vienna, and though it has only recently been translated word for word into English, it stands as an enduring landmark of equestrian literature
The Spanish Riding School in Vienna: Home of the Art of Riding written by General Decarpentry
(Originally published in 1947,) to pay homage to this unique institution. Published in both French and English to illustrate and document the great work and traditions of the Viennese School. This book is a time capsule containing the history of the great riders and traditions of the Spanish School, including masters from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Piaffer et Passage, first published in 1931 in French, Decarpentry gives unique insights from his personal experience, training his horse Professeur in these difficult movements. Xenophon Press has revisited the original French to help clarify vagueness that may have permeated previous English translations. Many unique French terms used by Decarpentry, like rassembler, have been restored and completely defined in English.
The Italian Tradition of Equestrian Art by G.B.Tomassini
Following the thread of equestrian treatises, this book traces the history of Italian and European equitation, recounting the rich cultural implications, the evolution of the techniques, and the many connections with the great events of European history. It is a story full of characters surrounded by an aura of legendary skill, of disputes between opposing schools, and of memorable deeds. It is a story that goes from the sixteenth century up to the early twentieth century, when again an Italian, Federico Caprilli, revolutionized the riding world, creating the jumping technique still in use today. This volume is populated with rich color reproductions of paintings and frescos from the period and black and white illustrations from the surveyed texts.
The Maneige Royal, or L’Instruction du Roy, by Antoine de Pluvinel
Unquestionably one of the most important books ever written about the art of horsemanship. Antione de Pluvinel lived from 1555 to 1620. Of gentle birth, he was a courtier to three kings of France: Henry III, Henry IV, and Louis XIII. He studied equitation from an early age, and spent six years as a pupil of the great Giovanni Battista Pignatelli in Napoles (southern Italy). When de Pluvinel returned to France, he opened an academy for young gentlemen at the Faubourg St. Honoré, where the subjects of music, literature, painting, mathematics, and riding were taught. Le Maneige Royal takes the form of a dialogue between master and pupil. This work also describes de Pluvinel’s desire to develop a more humane approach to training horses. Among other things, de Pluvinel was the first riding master to describe all of the High School movements and aids, and is believed to have been the first to use pillars for training horses.
The Art of Riding a Horse or Description of Modern Manège in all It's Perfection by Baron d'Eisenberg
Fully illustrated with engraving This book is likely to create a small revolution in the way we ride and train horse for supple collection. Each exercise is described succinctly with an accompanying diagram beautifully engraved. A contemporary of de la Gueriniere, Eisenberg was trained in the European Royal riding academies including the Viennese Spanish Riding school under Regenthal. Eisenberg is prominently featured in Koert van der Horst's Great Books on Horsemanship with over 8 pages of coverage. Never before has this material been available in English.
DRESSAGE IN THE FRENCH TRADITION by Dom Diogo de Bragança
Dom Diogo de Bragança, an eclectic mind who studied languages, music composition and law, is one of the great equestrian figures of our time. His technique was built on a long apprenticeship with Master Nuno Oliveira (of whom he was one of the first students), which resulted in a natural horsemanship, full of tact and sensitivity. He acquired an amazing equestrian culture through the many books he studied in French and Portuguese and kept applying the theories he researched on the numerous horses he successfully trained. His vast experience and spirit of observation allowed him to present in this seminal book a complete analysis of the goals and methods of French dressage. Dressage in the French Tradition is a reference for the understanding of classical dressage in which the horse, ridden with the greatest impulsion and lightness, displays his maximum activity in response to the minimum effort of the rider.
30 YEARS WITH MASTER NUNO OLIVEIRA by Michel Henriquet
This classical text, which knowledgeable horsemen have been anxiously awaiting for years, is finally available in English. Henriquet's personal record of correspondence provides a unique window into the private problem-solving dialogue between master and student. Now a master écuyer in his own right, Henriquet embellishes this new edition with 50 photographs from his personal collection. This first and only English edition includes many more photographs of Nuno Oliveira and histeacher than earlier editions. It has also been embellished with a glossary and a descriptive table of contents for the 71 chapters..
The Wisdom of Master Nuno Oliveira
Antoine de Coux, a magistrate in the Belgian Congo, was undoubtedly one of the most loyal students of Master Nuno Oliveira. From 1966, when they met and became close friends, until Oliveira's death in 1989, Antoine de Coux participated in the annual two-month training sessions that Nuno Oliveira held in Belgium. De Coux was a fine rider, watched every lesson and took copious notes, filling more than forty notebooks. He faithfully recorded the teachings and remarks of the Master. When Oliveira passed, de Coux decided to organize this great "memoir of a life experience," so that all riders could benefit from this knowledge. Nuno Oliveira was an exceptionally talented educator, gladly repeating his concepts with different descriptions to suit the level of understanding of his wide range of students. .
Truth in the Teaching of Master Nuno Oliveira Eleanor Russell
Eleanor Russell was a recognized dressage rider, an FEI judge and a breeder of Arabian Warmbloods from Australia. She was a student of Nuno Oliveira & translated 2 of his last books. By his tireless work, study, and belief in the Classical Principles of the art of training horses, Nuno provided the link with the Great Masters of the 16th, 17th and 19th century in Europe. Nuno Oliveira taught and trained all his life, based originally in Lisbon, and later in Avessada, Portugal. He gave numerous performances with his beautifully trained horses throughout Portugal, often for charity. In the 1960's and early 1970's, he travelled to Europe & the United Kingdom to give demonstrations of all Classical movements. He also travelled to the United States, South America, Australia and Asia giving training clinics and performances. He was regarded world-wide as the last of the Old Master Trainers, always devoted to the principles of the Classical Trainers of old.
Dressage Principles and Techniques: A blueprint for the serious rider by Major Miguel de Lancastre e Tavora
Miguel de Lancastre e Tavora was a master rider, trainer, and instructor. His genuine love and care for the well-being of horses comes through on every page of his magnum opus: Dressage Principles and Techniques. His kind, calm, and methodical approach is laid out in a progressive sequence that adheres strictly to the principles of the FEI. Miguel Tavora rode with Nuno Oliveira from the age of eight years until he was eighteen. After his military training, he was appointed as Chief Instructor and Director of Equestrian Teaching of the Mafra School in Portugal. Miguel migrated to Australia, where he and his wife Dianne ran their equestrian center. He trained numerous horses and riders in Australia, Portugal, and the USA to FEI levels.
The Art of Traditional Dressage: The Seat and Aids by de Kunffy - DVD
DVD - Volume I Seat and Aids: An educational DVD that is expertly articulated by Charles de Kunffy, world-renowned clinician, 14 years as an FEI Judge, and author of five books on Classical DressageThe centerpiece of this DVD is a unique and thorough description of how to obtain the correct rider's position on horseback and how to maintain it in motion by integrating the the rider's structure with the horse's motion. Invaluable information that is simply not taught anymore. This is becoming a lost art, but it is explained here and demonstrated by the author
Lessons in Lightness
Mark Russell (1951-2016) explains the theories and methods of the Old Masters in his easy-to-implement progression suitable for educating the riding horse in all disciplines. Lessons in Lightness offers the rider the concept of educating rather than training the horse using relaxation as the cornerstone. A tense horse has difficulty assimilating new information, yet relaxation often can be a difficult state to achieve. Mark Russell demonstrates not only how to attain relaxation but also how to maintain it throughout the horse’s education.
The Legacy of Kings
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